All posts by Lars Blønd

Shoulder tests – Videos of Impingement tests

Impingement of the tendon/s of the rotator cuff muscles or swelling in a bursa in the same region may cause pain when the shoulder is lifted up and the inflamed structures impinge on the acromion bone.

Usually the problem is associated with overuse of the arm in the raised position, such as painting the ceiling.

Hawkins & Kennedy´s test

Neer´s sign test

Scapula Assistance test

Jobe Impingement test

The pain may be associated with lifting the arm or may be just a dull ache and worse at night. Sometimes it is really a weakness more than actual pain.

Shoulder tests – Videos of SLAP tests

The abbreviation SLAP stands for 'Superior Labrum Anterior and Posterior'. The labrum is a cartilage structure that accommodates the rounded head of the humerus in the shoulder. 

The labrum of the shoulder can become torn in the same sort of way that the meniscus of the knee can become torn..

O´Brians test

Biceps load test

Resisted Supination External Rotation test (RSER)

Biceps load II test

A new pain provocation test

Forced shoulder abduction and elbow flexion test

Speed´s test

Yergason´s test

ARES ARIS Lafosse test

Biceps instability test

Kibler test

SLAP tears are classified according to their severity.

Shoulder Exercises

Here are four very simple shoulder exercises . The exercises were developed by Ben Kibler , and he has scientifically proven the positive effect of these particular exercises in relation to stabilisation of the scapula (or shoulder blade).

These exercises train the muscles serratus anterior and the lower trapezius. Typically these are the two muscles that become weakened from painful conditions of the shoulder, especially in cases of tendon impingement and snapping scapula .

AI also recommend 'sleepers stretch' ( which spans the posterior joint capsule ) and stretching of the front of the shoulder by stretching of the pectoralis minor muscle.

Inferior glide

Low row


Sleeper's stretch


Elbow Injuries

The elbow can, just as the knee and shoulder be hit by several different kinds of disorders. The most common disorders shall briefly be mentioned here.

Loose elbow - unstable elbow
If the elbow has dislocated, there is a risk that it will continue to feel unstable, or it can be followed by pain behind the elbow. This is normally caused by an injured ligament. The ligament can be reconstructed.

Stiff elbow
Stiff elbow is often caused by an dislocation or a fracture. If physiotherapy, does not improve the range of movement, it can be helped out by either open surgery or arthroscopic surgery (by pinholes).

Tennis elbow or Golf elbow
These kinds of injuries are normally caused by overuse. Tennis elbow is on the inner side (with the palm turned up) and the golf elbow is on the outer side. Treatment consists of physiotherapy with eccentric exercises and eventually corticosteroid injections. Both conditions can resolve without treatment within a year or two. Failing that, the conditions can be well treated by a minor surgery.

Locking elbow
This is often caused by a loose body catching in the joint. The loose body is normally secondary to a cartilage lesion. The loose body can be removed by an arthroscopy.

Entrapment of the plica
This is a common elbow disorder, where the plica is swollen and catches in the joint. This gives pain and sudden bustle on the outer side and is commonly mistaken as a tennis elbow. The pain is especially provoked by turning the wrist forward and backwards. Often the swollen plica can resolve by a steroid injection and if it relapses it can be easily removed by an arthroscopic procedure.

Mickey Mouse ears
In this condition there is pain on fully straightening the elbow, and sometimes there is even a mechanical stop preventing the elbow fully straightening. The problem is cause by overgrowth of bone at the back of the elbow bone. Typically this disorder is found among tennis players or boxers. The Mickey Mouse ears can be removed by arthroscopic surgery.

Osteoarthritis in the elbow
This commonly affects the elbow and an X-ray can confirm the diagnosis. If the elbow locks, an arthroscopy can be needed. In severe cases a total elbow prosthesis might be necessary

Entrapment of the Ulnar nerve
The ulnar nerve passes behind the elbow, and later it reaches the little finger and the ring finger. The nerve can get entrapped, and in severe cases a surgical release of the nerve can be needed.

Inflamed bursa
Behind the elbow is a bursa and this can cause a huge swelling at the back of the elbow. Often the start is rather insidious and the bursa becomes red, painful and swollen. In some cases this can get a more chronic character and become a recurrent disorder every time the elbow is used. In the start it can be easily treated by NSAID gel and immobilisation. In more chronic cases the bursa can be removed by an arthroscopic technique.

Ruptured of the distal (lower) biceps tendon
The biceps muscle tendon attaches on the lower arm. Sometimes this can be torn off from the radius (as it can also tear off on the other end from the shoulder). If the diagnosis is made within the first few weeks it can be reinserted by surgery. If it becomes more chronic it might be necessary to do a reconstruction of the tendon, since it becomes too short.

Locking elbow
This is often caused by a loose body catching up. The loose body is normally secondary to a cartilage lesion. The loose body can be removed by an arthroscopy

Sometimes it can be necessary to do ultrasound, X-rays or MRI scans to help with the diagnosis of elbow disorders.

Shoulder injuries

Here you can read about some of the most common shoulder injuries and causes for shoulderpain

This is one of the most common shoulder problems causing shoulder pain. What happens is that the bursa between the rotator cuff and acromion is squeezed. The background for this can be too much bone has grown into a ligament (Acromioclavicular ligament) and the space gets too tight causing the bursa to get inflamed and swollen resulting in pain. However the most common background for the impingement is unbalanced muscles that controls the scapular position on the breast wall. Then the scapula is tilted and again this makes the bone press upon the bursa. (Wrong body position here among having weakness in the M. Trapezius inferior and M. Serratus anterior). The pains typically has an insidiously progres (computer work), but the pain can also be provoked by a fall or hit. Commonly there is pain while resting and the pain is localised on the outer site of the upper arm. Typically the pain is aggravated and the armed is exhausted, working over shoulder height.

The impingement shoulder problem is initially treated by steroid injections (ultrasound guided) and physiotherapy. The steroid reduces the pain of swelling the bursa, making the physiotherapy guided shoulder exercises more easy to perform. If you are not recovered by those treatments a shoulder arthroscopy consisting of removal of the osseous spur (acromioplasty) in order to gain more space.

Frozen shoulder - Periarthritis

This is a disease that often starts with heavily shoulder pain. The pain slowly decreases over the first three month and simultaneously the shoulder gets stiff and the only movement in shoulder is between the scapula and the breast wall. The cause of the disease is unknown. In most circumstances there will be spontaneously recover within a year. Intraarticular steroid injections can reduce the pain. By a shoulder arthroscopy the tightened capsula tissue can be loosened and the range of movement can be instantly normalised and the pain can be reduced. The gain by doing surgery is “only” time - in the end the is no differences between surgery and just waiting for spontaneously recover.

SLAP lesions - Labral tears

SLAP lesion is an abbreviation and is also called labral tear and some call this the meniscus tear of the shoulder. SLAP lesion is commonly overlooked type of shoulder injury. The shoulder injury is typically a result from a fall or a heavy pull in the arm, but sometimes the SLAP injury is just happening without a specific trauma. The pain is often described a pain deeply into the shoulder joint and the can feel like catching and clicking. Sometimes the pain is more unspecific and can go up to the neck or down into the arm.

The diagnosis is often difficult, but using a combination of trauma, symptoms and clinical examination can be significant. The SLAP lesion can sometimes be clearly identified by MRI scan but is frequently not visualised. Even by shoulder arthroscopy the lesion can be overlooked.


Please go to management of SLAP lesions 

Loose shoulder - Dislocated shoulder - Subluxation of shoulder

When the shoulder dislocated the labrum is normally torn off in the front of the shoulder bowl. The shoulder capsule and the ligaments attaches on the labrum and when the labrum tears the ligaments gets loose. When the labrum heals back to the bowl it always heals in a new position (Bankart lesion) making the shoulder more loose. Therefore the shoulder will be prone for new dislocations. The younger you are the prone you are for re-disclocations and if you are below 30 years the will be a nearly 80 % risk of a new dislocation. For every dislocation the shoulder will gets more loose.

The surgical treatment for stabilising the shoulder is primary done by arthroscopic surgery, but in more severe cases with loss of bone (bony Bankart and huge Hill Sachs) the treatment can be done by a Latar Jet procedure. The arthroscopic treatment consist of loosening of the labrum from it wrong position and re-fixation at the normal anatomic position with some suture anchors. Since the ligament and shoulder capsule attach to the labrum those will automatically become tightened and this will stabilise the shoulder.

Before surgical treatment is considered it is important to diagnose the type of lesion in the shoulder in order to plan for the right surgical intervention. Special lesions like osseous Bankart, posterior Bankart, hypermobility and HAGL lesion need to be diagnosed before surgery. The treatment of those injuries will not be explained here. 

Rotator cuff lesion

This is a common shoulder injury. One or more of the small muscle tendons that controls the shoulder motion can become injured.  The injury is often caused by a fall or a sudden movement with the arm in and "abducted" (away from the body) position. The tendons can be fully or partially torn from the attachment on the humerus bone. The symptoms are typically pain during nights and reduced forced when the arm is moved outwards and forward. Normally it is recommended to undergo surgical reattachment within 3 month of the injury. If you wait too long there is a risk for the tendons will shrunk. The tendons are reattached by arthroscopic technique with the use of small suture anchors. The diagnosis is mainly done by history, examination, UL sound and eventually MRI scan. After the surgery the arm needs to be immobilised in order for the tendons to heal back to the bone. This is followed by a longer period of physiotherapy guided rehabilitation 

Osteoarthritis in the shoulder

Osteoarthritis in the shoulder is a slowly progressing disease causing increased shoulder pain and reduced range of movements. Often the cause is unknown, but a previous shoulder injury is a well known factor. The cartilage in the shoulder that help with a smooth movement is weared. An X-ray will confirm the diagnosis. The surgical treatment consist of removing the weared cartilage and replace it with metal. The surgery will often increase the range of movement and reduces the pain. In some cases an arthroscopic housecleaning and biceps tenotomy can reduce the pain.

AC-joint dislocation

The AC joint can be torn by a fall on the shoulder and in more severe cases it will dislocate. The outer end of the collar bone will become prominent. The is a typical injury in sports like MTB, motocross and alpine skiing etc. What happens is that 1 to 3 different ligaments is torn. If one ligament is torn the collarbone will not change position. If 2 ligaments is torn the AC joint will be subluxed. If 3 ligaments is torn the collar bone will become clearly dislocated and it look very dramatic. It can become really confusing for you when the doctor in the emergency department tells you that this is not going to be treated by surgery. However most patients will become pain free and with normal shoulder function without surgery. However for those who continue to have problems af 3 to 6 month of expectation, the problem needs to be treated by surgery. In most cases my recommendation will be a Weaver Dunn procedure and I only do reconstruction with hamstrings graft for revision cases.

AC joint pain and AC joint osteoarthritis

The AC joint (acromioclavicular joint) is the small joint between the collarbone and the shoulder blade. You can injure your AC joint  by a fall etc and a small meniscus like structure in the joint that can be torn. Often you will have pain in the top of the shoulder and it can radiate to the front of the shoulder and towards the neck. Often your pain is provoked during sleep on the affected shoulder, push ups and movement with the arm towards the other shoulder. Your AC joint pain can also be induced by wrong body position with protraction of your shoulders, and this makes your joint to become compressed and overloaded. In those cases your body position needs to be corrected by physiotherapy guided training. AC joint osteoarthritis is very common and often you will not have any symptoms. However in some cases you can have severe pain.

The treatment of your AC joint pain is first of all correction of your body position, avoidance of the movements that induce the pain. A steroid injection combined with local anesthetics can help confirming the diagnosis and sometimes one or two injection is enough and the pain will never come back. If your pain continue you can be easily treated by arthroscopic surgery. By this your outer end of the collar bone is resected and the gap will be fill up with scar tissue that act as a buffer.

Calcific Tendonitis or Tendinitis Calcarea

This is a build-up calcium in your rotator cuff tendon (calcific deposit). Why it builds up is unknown. The calcific deposit is causing increased pressure and inflammation and sometimes the pain can be very intense.  The diagnosis is done by ultrasound and/or x-ray. Sometimes the deposit can be sucked out by needle extraction during ultrasound. If the calc is to0 hard you can reduce the inflammation by steroid injection. Your calcific deposit can be resolved spontaneously by sometimes it needs to be removed by arthroscopic surgery.

Snapping Scapula

This is a more rare and special cause of pain behind your scapula. Your pain can often radiate to the neck and you can have a sensation of something filling up behind the scapula. You pain is coming from the bursa that is localised between the scapula and the thoracic wall. Your pain can be provoked by sitting in a couch. Often you problem is based upon shoulder muscle imbalance, that makes the scapula articulate too tight on the thoracic wall. You can have this corrected by physiotherapy guided exercises (it takes month). The pain can often be reduced by a steroid injection into the bursa. In more chronic cases surgery with arthroscopic resection of the chronic inflamed bursa and eventually also resection of a bone spur, can be a solution.

The shoulder is a joint that can cause a lot of misery. I have spent many years becoming proficient in the assessment and management of shoulder problems.

This page lists some of the more common shoulder complaints:

  • Impingement
  • Frozen shoulder
  • SLAP Lesions
  • Biceps tendinosis
  • Shoulder instability
  • Rotator cuff tears
  • Osteoarthritis of the shoulder
  • Dislocation of the acromio-clavicular joint
  • Osteoarthritis of the acromio-clavicular joint
  • Calicification of the rotator cuff tendon
  • Snapping scapula

Presentations and Abstracts

1992 - 2023

1. Blønd L, Bay P: Testing of sailor anatomy and physiology. Sailing Sportsmedicine Symposium,Livorno Academia Navarra. Italien okt 92.

2. Larsson B, Beyer N, Blønd L, Bay P, Aagaard P, Overgaard H, Kjær M. Exercise performance in elite sailors. FIMS 7th European Sports Medicine Congress, okt 93 Cypern.

3. Beyer N, Blønd L, Bay P, Larsson B, Kjær M. Arbejdskapacitet og skader hos elite sejlere. DIMS årsmøde, nov 93 Næstved.

4. Beyer N, Larsson B, Blønd L, Bay P, Aagaard P, Overgaard H, Kjær M. Exercise performance and injuries in Olympic sailors in Denmark. Scand J Med Sci Sports nov 94

5. Blønd L, Hansen LB: The Natural History of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome in athletes. DOS årsmøde 96– 4. præmie foredrags-konkurrence.

6. Blønd L, Hansen LB: Patellofemoralt smertesyndrome i en idrætsklinik. DIMS årsmøde 96.

7. Blønd L, Hansen LB: Ulykker ved væltede fodboldmål 1989 - 1995. DIMS årsmøde 96

8. Blønd L, Kirketerp-Møller K, Sonne-Holm S, Madsen JL: Evaluations of different procedures for lower limb exsanguination in healthy volunteers. DOS forårsmøde 99

9. Blønd L, Madsen JL: How to exsanguinate upper limbs. DOS årsmøde 99 2. præmie foredrags-konkurrence.

10. Blønd L, Madsen JL: New scintigraphic method for evaluation of changes in local blood volumes in human limbs and contemporary evaluation of different procedures for exsanguination of limbs before surgery. Dansk selskab for klinisk fysiologi & nuklear medicin´s årsmøde 99 3. præmie foredragskonkurrence

11. Blønd L, Madsen JL: How to exsanguinate upper limbs. Continental Course of surgeons Nottingham 00.

12. Blønd L, Madsen J: Scintigraphic detection of bone marrow perfusion. DOS årsmøde 01.

13. Blønd L, Madsen J: Exsanguination of limbs in elderly subjects before application of a tourniquet. DOS årsmøde 02

14. Hölmich P, Blønd L, Hansen M, Weidemann P, Parner J. Hypermobility is not a problem in male soccer. ISAKOS. New Zealand. 03

15. Blønd L: Trochleoplastic – 3 danske cases. DOS 2007

16. Blønd L. The arthrocopic trochleoplasty. ISAKOS. Japan. 09

17. Blønd L: “Prospective evaluation of open trochleoplasty in patients with recurrent patella dislocation and severe trochlea dysplasia” DOS 09

18. Rechter S, Blønd L: Scapulothoracic arthroscopy, a prospective study. Scandinavian Shoulder and Elbow meeting 09

19. Blønd L: Arthroscopic Deepening Trochleoplasty. Patellofemoral Symposium. ESSKA Congress. Oslo 10

20. Blønd L: ”The arthroscopic trochleoplasty. A prospective 2 year follow-up DOS 10

21. Blønd L: “The arthroscopic trochleoplasty” Midlands Controversies Birgmingham 11

22. Blønd L: “The arthroscopic trochleoplasty” IMUKA, Holland 12

23. Blønd L: “The arthroscopic trochleoplasty” ESSKA, Schweiz 12

24. Blønd L: “Trochleoplasty” Scandinavian Congress of Sports Medicine, Sverige 12

25. Blønd L: ICL: 129-The Assessment and Treatment of Failed Patellar Stabilization: “Trochleoplasty for failed patellar stablisation”: AAOS, Chicago, USA 13

26. Blønd L: "Trochleoplasty" Joint Preservation Congress, Polen 13

27. Blønd L: "Snapping Scapula" Danish Soceity of Sports Medicine annual meeting 2014

28. Blønd L, "Arthroscopic trochleoplasty belongs to the future. Xian, China 14 - download

29. Blønd L. Live surgery MPFL reconstruction Worchester, England 15

30. Blønd L. "Critical view on the patellofemoral joint" Joint Preservation Congress, Warsawa, Polen 15

31. Blønd L: Workshop "MPFL reconstruction" Munich, Germany 16

32. Blønd L: "Patellar instability & arthroscopic trochleoplasty" 3th Sports Medicine Symposium Cologne, Germany 16

33. Blønd L. Patellar instability symposium - Danish Sports Congres. Copenhagen, Denmark 17

34. Joint Presevation, Polen 17 - Invited speaker

35. Asmac Congres, Indien 17 - Invited speaker

36. Iascon Congres, Indien 17 - Invited speaker

37. Face to Face, Lissabon 17 - Invited speaker

38. PF meeting München 17 - Invited speaker

39., København 18 - Invited speaker

40. SAKS, Roskilde 18 - Invited speaker

41. Connecticut 18, Invited speaker

42. Workshop, Munchen 19 - Invited speaker

43. PF meeting, Feldkirch, Østrig 19 - Invited speaker

44. Arthrex, Munchen 19 - Invited speaker

45. PF meeting, Wien, Østrig 19 - Invited speaker

46. Arthroscopic meeting, Krakow, Polen 19 - Invited speaker

47. Joint Preservation, Katowitce, Polen 19 - Invited speaker

48. ISAKOS, Lyon 20 – Invited speaker

49. ESSKA, online 21 – Invited speaker

50. Winglet, online 21 - Invited speaker

51. Sicot, online 21 – Invited speaker

52. EMEA, Munchen 22 - Invited speaker

53. ESSKA, Paris 22 - Invited speaker

54. JNJ Meeting, Israel online – Invited speaker

Scientific presentations

Peer-reviewed Articles

1996 - 2023

1 .Larsson, B., Beyer, N., Bay, P., Blønd, L., Aagaard, P., and Kjaer, M.: Exercise performance in elite male and female sailors. Int. J Sports Med. 17: 504-508, 1996.

2. Blønd, L. and Hansen, L.: Patellofemoral pain syndrome in athletes: a 5.7-year retrospective follow-up study of 250 athletes. Acta Orthop Belg. 64: 393-400, 1998. PDF Version

3. Blønd, L. and Hansen, L. B.: Injuries caused by falling soccer goalposts in Denmark. Br. J Sports Med. 33: 110-112, 1999. PDF Version

4. Blønd L. and Madsen J.L.: Scintigraphic method for evaluation of reductions in local blood volumes in human extremities. Scand J Lab Clin Inv. 60;(5): 333-339, 2000. PDF Version

5 .Blønd L., Kirketerp-Moeller K, Sonne-Holm S, and Madsen J.L.: Exsanguination of lower limbs before surgery. Acta Orthop Scand. 73;(1): 89-92, 2002 PDF Version

6. Blønd L. and Madsen J.L.: Exsanguination of upper limbs before surgery. JBJS (br). 84;(4):489-491, 2002. PDF Version

7. Blønd L. and Madsen J.L: Exsanguination of limbs in elderly before surgery. A comparison with young individuals. Int. Orthop. 27;(2): 114-116, 2003. PDF Version

8. Blønd L. and Madsen J.L: Bone marrow perfusion in healthy subjects assessed by scintigraphy after application of a tourniquet. Acta Orthop Scand. 74;(4): 460-464, 2003. PDF Version

9. Husted H., Blønd L.,Sonne-Holm S.,Holm G.,Jacobsen T., Gebuhr P.:Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and blood transfusion in primary total hip arthroplasty. Acta Orthop Scand. 74;(6): 665-669, 2003. PDF Version

10. Blønd L., Jensen NV., Søe-Nielsen NH. Clinical Consequences of Different Exsanguination Methods in Hand Surgery. A Double-blind Randomised Study. Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume) 2008; 33; 475 PDF Version

11. Konradsen L., Kirkegaard PR., Larsen VH., Blønd L. Suprascapular Nerve Block or Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block for Pain Relief after Arthroscopic Acromioplasty. Ambulatory Surgery. Vol 15-1 2009 PDF Version

12. Blønd L. and Schöttle P. The arthroscopic deepening trochleoplasty. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc18(4):480-5 2010 PDF Version

13. Blønd L "Development in sportsmedicine" Ugeskr Laeger 2012;174(12):783 PDF Version

14 .Blønd L., & Rechter S. Arthroscopic treatment for snapping scapula: a prospective case series. Eur J Orthop Surg & Traumatol 2014;24(2):159-64 PDF Version

15. Blønd L., & Haugegaard M. Combined arthroscopic deepening trochleoplasty and reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament for patients with recurrent patella dislocation and trochlear dysplasia. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2014;22(10):2484-90 PDF Version

16. Blønd L "Patella instability" Ugeskr Laeger. 2014;17;176(12A) PDF Version

17. Blønd L., Kaewkongnok B. Reconstruction of delayed diagnoses simultaneous bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures using semtendinosus and quadriceps tendon autografts. SpringerPlus 2015 4:111 PDF Version

18.. Blønd L. Arthroscopic deepening trochleoplasty - The technique. Oper Tech Sports Med 2015 23(2):136-42

19. Blønd L & Donell S Editorial: Does the patellofemoral joint need articular cartilage. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2015 Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 23(12):3461-3. PDF Version

20. Barfod K, Blønd L & Meier JF. Patellofemoral lidelse på grund af øget anteversion af collum femoris. 2016 Ugeskr Laeger 29;178(35)

21. Paiva M, Blønd L, Hölmich P, Steensen R, Diederichs G, Feller J.A. and Barfod K.W. Quality assessment of radiological measurements of trochlear dysplasia; a literature review. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2018 26(3):746-755 PDF Version

22. Blønd L. Patellofemoral instability - An update. Review. 2017 Acta Orthop Belg. Link Download

23. Eshoj H, Bak K, Blønd L& Juul-Kristensen B. Translation, adaptation and measurement properties of an electronic version of the Danish Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI). BMJ Open. 2017 Jul 10;7(7) PDF Version

24. Gravesen KS, Kallemose T, Blønd L, Troelsen A, Barfod KW. High incidence of acute and recurrent patellar dislocations: a retrospective nationwide epidemiological study involving 24.154 primary dislocations. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2018 Apr;26(4):1204-1209  PDF Version

25. Blønd L. Arthroscopic deepening trochleoplasty for chronic anterior knee pain after previous failed conservative and arthroscopic treatment. Report of two cases. Int J Surg Case Rep 2017 40;63-68 - PDF Version

26. Kaewkongnok B, Bøvling A, Millandt N, Møllenborg C, Viberg B, Blønd L.  Does different duration of non-operative immobilization have an effect on the redislocation rate of primary patellar dislocation? A retrospective multicenter cohort study. The Knee. 2018;25(1):51-58 Link

27.  Blønd L. Does the patellofemoral joint need articular cartilage? - clinical relevance. Annals of joints 2018, May 1-6

28. Gravesen KS, Kallemose T, Blønd L, Troelsen A, Barfod KW. Persistent morbidity after Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction - A registry study with an eight-year follow-up on a nationwide cohort from 1996 to 2014. Knee 2019, 26, 20-25 PDF version

29. Rathleff MS, Straszek CL, Blønd L, Thomsen JL. [Knee pain in children and adolescents] [Danish] Ugeskr Laeger. 2019 Mar 25;181(13) PDF version

30. Barfod KW, Blønd L. Treatment of osteoarthritis with autologous and microfragmented adipose tissue. 2019 66;10 PDF Version

31. Barfod KW, Blønd L. Joint-preserving surgery in hip and knee and development of secondary osteoarthritis. Danish Med J 2020 182;42 PDF Version

32. Hansen M, Staghøj J, Khan N, Blønd L, Barfod KW. High tibial osteotomy performed with PEEK implant demonstrated a failure rate of 28%. J Isakos. 2020 PDF Version

33. Blønd L. Statements concerning the patellofemoral joint. Orthop Sports Med 2020 PDF Version

34.Paiva M, Blønd L, Hölmich P, Barfod KW. Effect of Medialization of the Trochlear Groove and Lateralization of the Tibial Tubercle on TT-TG Distance: A Cross-sectional Study of Dysplastic and Nondysplastic Knees. Am J Spors Med. 2021 PDF Version

35. Blønd L. New possibilities. Same-day surgery for trochlear dysplasia. Research Outreach. 2021, 124, 98-101 PDF Version

36. Bagge J, Hölmich P, Hammer FAa, Nehlin JO, Vomstein K, Blønd L, Hölmich LR, Barfod KW, Successful isolation of viable stem cells from cryopreserved microfragmented human adipose tissue from patients with knee osteoarthritis – A comparative study of isolation by tissue explant culture and enzymatic digestion J Exp Orthop; 

2023 10(1) doi: 10.1186/s40634-023-00596-x.

37. Blønd L, Barfod KW. Arthroscopic Deepening Trochleoplasty and MPFL-reconstruction changes the trochlear shape and improves patient reported outcome. A retrospective cohort study including pre- and postoperative MRI assessments of the Trochlear Groove. Orthop J Sports Med; In print

Book chapters

1.  Arthroscopic deepening trocheloplasty." Patellofemoral Pain, Instability and Arthritis" by Stefano Zaffagnini, David Dejour and Elizabeth Arendt, Springer-Verlag,  2010


2. The operative technique arthroscopic trochleoplasty. "Anterior Knee Pain and Patellar Instability" Editor-In-Chief: Vicente Sanchis-Alfonso, Publisher: Springer-Verlag London. Second Edition 2010.

3.  Arthroscopic trochleoplasty. "Patellar instability. Management Principles and Operative Technique" Shital Parikh, Wolters Kluwer 2019

4. Arthroscopic deepening trocheloplasty. 'Patellofemoral Pain, Instability and Arthritis' Second Edition by David Dejour, Stefano Zaffagnini, David Dejour, Elizabeth Arendt, Petri Sillanää, Florian Dirisamer, Springer-Verlag,  2020

5. Arthroscopic trocheloplasty. 'Lower extremity joint preservation' Editors: Mats Brittberg, Konrad Slynarski. Publisher: Springer, 2021

6. Arthroscopic deepening trochleoplasty. 'Anterior Knee Pain and Patellar Instability' Editor-In-Chief: Vicente Sanchis-Alfonso, Publisher: Springer-Verlag London. Third Edition 2023. P. 503-519  DOI:10.1007/978-3-031-09767-6_35


  • Sports injuries and exercise performance
  • The effects of limb exsanguination & tournquet use during surgery
  • Patellar instability
  • Trochleoplasty
  • Shoulder and elbow

Orchid ID - check it out

Selected Courses & Symposia

This is a list of the key meetings I have attended:

Orthopedic Technology Innovative Forum, Munich 2019 (Invited speaker)

Patellofemoral Symposium, Feldkirch 2019 (Invited speaker) Copenhagen, Denmark 2018 (Invited speaker)

Joint Preservation Congres, Warsawa 17 - (Invited speaker)                                                           

IASCON Congres India 17 - live surgery - (Invited)                                                        

Patellofemoral Symposium, Portugal 17 - (Invited speaker)                                                     

Patellofemoral Symposium, Munchen 17 - live surgery -Invited  Copenhagen, Denmark 2017 (Invited speaker)

International Patellofemoral Symposium, Linz, Austria 2017 (Invited speaker)

Knee Symposium, Köln, Germany 16 (Invited speaker)

Workshop, Munich, Germany 16 (Invited speaker)

Joint Preservation, Warsaw, Poland 15 (Invited speaker)

Midland Knee meeting Worcester, England 15 (invited speaker)

Int congress innovative orthopaedic Xian, China 14 (invited speaker)

Joint Preservation, Warsaw 2013 (invited speaker)

AAOS Meeting, Chicago 2013 (invited speaker)

ESSKA Meeting, Budapest 1996, Nice 1998, Innsbruck 2006, Oslo 2010, Geneva 2012, Amsterdam 2014

ISAKOS Meeting, Switzerland 2001, Auckland 2003, Osaka 2009, Lyon 2015

SECEC Meeting, Rome 2005, Brugge 2008

Danish Association of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, 1996, 2001, 2002, 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

Scandinavian Congres Sports Medicine, Malmø 2012 (invited speaker)

IMUKA congress Masterclass of Knees, Holland 12 (invited speaker)

Midland Controversies, England 11 (invited speaker)

Advanced Shoulder Surgery, France 2007

Medcalf artroscopic surgery U.S.A. 2004, 2011

Advanced cources on Shoulder Arthroscopy France 2003, 2005, 2007, 2015

Patellofemoral Meeting, Denmark 2004

Mitek Arthroscopic Surgery Italy 2004

International Skeletal Trauma cources Switzerland 2002

Advanced Shoulder Arthroscopy Denmark 2002

49 th. Continental cources of Surgeons, UK 2000

Advanced arthroscopic surgery, Italy 1999

AO – Course, Cph 1994

Winter Sports Medicine, France 1989

Hopefully you can see that I have attended quite a number of courses, symposia and congresses

International Patellofemoral Symposium, Linz, Austria 2017

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Awards & Prizes

I am the recipient of the following:

Awards and PricesYouth leader Price Vallensbæk Municipality 1990

Received scholarship Guidal foundation 1994 and 2000

Award Winner Best Presentation: Danish Association of Orthopaedic Surgery Annual Meeting

Received Danish Orthopedic Society Fund 02

Tibial Tubercle Transfer

By Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy (TTO) the insertion site of the ligamentum patella on the tibia is moved either inwards or down causing a more aligned traction of the patella.

If your Patella is placed to high in relation to the groove (Patella alta), the Tibia Tubercle Transposition can bring your Patella downwards into the groove. If the Tibial Tubercle is outward placed, your Patella tends to track outwards and by medialization (moving inwards), your patella will track more correctly. The surgery should only be performed if you are having either an increased TT-TG or an decreased cartilage overlap between the patella and the trochlea groove (less than 6 mm) - read more here. A little variation of this surgery is called Fulkerson osteotomy and this can be used for a special group of patients having anterior knee pain caused by osteoarthritis in the Patellofemoral joint.

As it appears from the picture at left, the Tibial Tubercle is chiseled off and moved inwards. The bone block is fixated again by 2 - 4 screws.

This demonstrate a Patella Alta - meaning a high riding kneecap

The distalisation of the tibial tubercle have brought the patella into the trochlear groove